Openly accessible

Global Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases and Risk Factors, 1990–2019

Roth, GA, Mensah, GA, Johnson, CO, Addolorato, G, Ammirati, E, Baddour, LM, Barengo, NC, Beaton, AZ, Benjamin, EJ, Benziger, CP, Bonny, A, Brauer, M, Brodmann, M, Cahill, TJ, Carapetis, J, Catapano, AL, Chugh, SS, Cooper, LT, Coresh, J, Criqui, M, DeCleene, N, Eagle, KA, Emmons-Bell, S, Feigin, VL, Fernández-Solà, J, Fowkes, G, Gakidou, E, Grundy, SM, He, FJ, Howard, G, Hu, F, Inker, L, Karthikeyan, G, Kassebaum, N, Koroshetz, W, Lavie, C, Lloyd-Jones, D, Lu, HS, Mirijello, A, Temesgen, AM, Mokdad, A, Moran, AE, Muntner, P, Narula, J, Neal, B, Ntsekhe, M, Moraes de Oliveira, G, Otto, C, Owolabi, M, Pratt, M, Rajagopalan, S, Reitsma, M, Ribeiro, ALP, Rigotti, N, Rodgers, A, Sable, C, Shakil, S, Sliwa-Hahnle, K, Stark, B, Sundström, J, Timpel, P, Tleyjeh, IM, Valgimigli, M, Vos, T, Whelton, PK, Yacoub, M, Zuhlke, L, Murray, C, Fuster, V, Roth, GA, Mensah, GA, Johnson, CO, Addolorato, G, Ammirati, E, Baddour, LM, Barengo, NC, Beaton, A, Benjamin, EJ, Benziger, CP, Bonny, A, Brauer, M, Brodmann, M, Cahill, TJ, Carapetis, JR, Catapano, AL, Chugh, S, Cooper, LT, Coresh, J, Criqui, MH, DeCleene, NK, Eagle, KA, Emmons-Bell, S, Feigin, VL, Fernández-Sola, J, Fowkes, FGR, Gakidou, E, Grundy, SM, He, FJ, Howard, G, Hu, F, Inker, L, Karthikeyan, G, Kassebaum, NJ, Koroshetz, WJ, Lavie, C, Lloyd-Jones, D, Lu, HS, Mirijello, A, Misganaw, AT, Mokdad, AH, Moran, AE, Muntner, P, Narula, J, Neal, B, Ntsekhe, M, Oliveira, GMM, Otto, CM, Owolabi, MO, Pratt, M, Rajagopalan, S, Reitsma, MB, Ribeiro, ALP, Rigotti, NA, Rodgers, A, Sable, CA, Shakil, SS, Sliwa, K, Stark, BA, Sundström, J, Timpel, P, Tleyjeh, II, Valgimigli, M, Vos, T, Whelton, PK, Yacoub, M, Zuhlke, LJ, Abbasi-Kangevari, M, Abdi, A, Abedi, A, Aboyans, V, Abrha, WA, Abu-Gharbieh, E, Abushouk, AI, Acharya, D, Adair, T, Adebayo, OM, Ademi, Z, Advani, SM, Afshari, K, Afshin, A, Agarwal, G, Agasthi, P, Ahmad, S, Ahmadi, S, Ahmed, MB, Aji, B, Akalu, Y, Akande-Sholabi, W, Aklilu, A, Akunna, CJ, Alahdab, F, Al-Eyadhy, A, Alhabib, KF, Alif, SM, Alipour, V, Aljunid, SM, Alla, F, Almasi-Hashiani, A, Almustanyir, S, Al-Raddadi, RM, Amegah, AK, Amini, S, Aminorroaya, A, Amu, H, Amugsi, DA, Ancuceanu, R, Anderlini, D, Andrei, T, Andrei, CL, Ansari-Moghaddam, A, Anteneh, ZA, Antonazzo, IC, Antony, B, Anwer, R, Appiah, LT, Arabloo, J, Ärnlöv, J, Artanti, KD, Ataro, Z, Ausloos, M, Avila-Burgos, L, Awan, AT, Awoke, MA, Ayele, HT, Ayza, MA, Azari, S, B, DB, Baheiraei, N, Baig, AA, Bakhtiari, A, Banach, M, Banik, PC, Baptista, EA, Barboza, MA, Barua, L, Basu, S, Bedi, N, Béjot, Y, Bennett, DA, Bensenor, IM, Berman, AE, Bezabih, YM, Bhagavathula, AS, Bhaskar, S, Bhattacharyya, K, Bijani, A, Bikbov, B, Birhanu, MM, Boloor, A, Brant, LC, Brenner, H, Briko, NI, Butt, ZA, Caetano dos Santos, FL, Cahill, LE, Cahuana-Hurtado, L, Cámera, LA, Campos-Nonato, IR, Cantu-Brito, C, Car, J, Carrero, JJ, Carvalho, F, Castañeda-Orjuela, CA, Catalá-López, F, Cerin, E, Charan, J, Chattu, VK, Chen, S, Chin, KL, Choi, J-YJ, Chu, D-T, Chung, S-C, Cirillo, M, Coffey, S, Conti, S, Costa, VM, Cundiff, DK, Dadras, O, Dagnew, B, Dai, X, Damasceno, AAM, Dandona, L, Dandona, R, Davletov, K, De la Cruz-Góngora, V, De la Hoz, FP, De Neve, J-W, Denova-Gutiérrez, E, Derbew Molla, M, Derseh, BT, Desai, R, Deuschl, G, Dharmaratne, SD, Dhimal, M, Dhungana, RR, Dianatinasab, M, Diaz, D, Djalalinia, S, Dokova, K, Douiri, A, Duncan, BB, Duraes, AR, Eagan, AW, Ebtehaj, S, Eftekhari, A, Eftekharzadeh, S, Ekholuenetale, M, El Nahas, N, Elgendy, IY, Elhadi, M, El-Jaafary, SI, Esteghamati, S, Etisso, AE, Eyawo, O, Fadhil, I, Faraon, EJA, Faris, PS, Farwati, M, Farzadfar, F, Fernandes, E, Fernandez Prendes, C, Ferrara, P, Filip, I, Fischer, F, Flood, D, Fukumoto, T, Gad, MM, Gaidhane, S, Ganji, M, Garg, J, Gebre, AK, Gebregiorgis, BG, Gebregzabiher, KZ, Gebremeskel, GG, Getacher, L, Obsa, AG, Ghajar, A, Ghashghaee, A, Ghith, N, Giampaoli, S, Gilani, SA, Gill, PS, Gillum, RF, Glushkova, EV, Gnedovskaya, EV, Golechha, M, Gonfa, KB, Goudarzian, AH, Goulart, AC, Guadamuz, JS, Guha, A, Guo, Y, Gupta, R, Hachinski, V, Hafezi-Nejad, N, Haile, TG, Hamadeh, RR, Hamidi, S, Hankey, GJ, Hargono, A, Hartono, RK, Hashemian, M, Hashi, A, Hassan, S, Hassen, HY, Havmoeller, RJ, Hay, SI, Hayat, K, Heidari, G, Herteliu, C, Holla, R, Hosseini, M, Hosseinzadeh, M, Hostiuc, M, Hostiuc, S, Househ, M, Huang, J, Humayun, A, Iavicoli, I, Ibeneme, CU, Ibitoye, SE, Ilesanmi, OS, Ilic, IM, Ilic, MD, Iqbal, U, Irvani, SSN, Shariful Islam, Sheikh, Islam, RM, Iso, H, Iwagami, M, Jain, V, Javaheri, T, Jayapal, SK, Jayaram, S, Jayawardena, R, Jeemon, P, Jha, RP, Jonas, JB, Jonnagaddala, J, Joukar, F, Jozwiak, JJ, Jürisson, M, Kabir, A, Kahlon, T, Kalani, R, Kalhor, R, Kamath, A, Kamel, I, Kandel, H, Kandel, A, Karch, A, Kasa, AS, Katoto, PDMC, Kayode, GA, Khader, YS, Khammarnia, M, Khan, MS, Khan, MN, Khan, M, Khan, EA, Khatab, K, Kibria, GMA, Kim, YJ, Kim, GR, Kimokoti, RW, Kisa, S, Kisa, A, Kivimäki, M, Kolte, D, Koolivand, A, Korshunov, VA, Koulmane Laxminarayana, SL, Koyanagi, A, Krishan, K, Krishnamoorthy, V, Kuate Defo, B, Kucuk Bicer, B, Kulkarni, V, Kumar, GA, Kumar, N, Kurmi, OP, Kusuma, D, Kwan, GF, La Vecchia, C, Lacey, B, Lallukka, T, Lan, Q, Lasrado, S, Lassi, ZS, Lauriola, P, Lawrence, WR, Laxmaiah, A, LeGrand, KE, Li, M-C, Li, B, Li, S, Lim, SS, Lim, L-L, Lin, H, Lin, Z, Lin, R-T, Liu, X, Lopez, AD, Lorkowski, S, Lotufo, PA, Lugo, A, M, NK, Madotto, F, Mahmoudi, M, Majeed, A, Malekzadeh, R, Malik, AA, Mamun, AA, Manafi, N, Mansournia, MA, Mantovani, LG, Martini, S, Mathur, MR, Mazzaglia, G, Mehata, S, Mehndiratta, MM, Meier, T, Menezes, RG, Meretoja, A, Mestrovic, T, Miazgowski, B, Miazgowski, T, Michalek, IM, Miller, TR, Mirrakhimov, EM, Mirzaei, H, Moazen, B, Moghadaszadeh, M, Mohammad, Y, Mohammad, DK, Mohammed, S, Mohammed, MA, Mokhayeri, Y, Molokhia, M, Montasir, AA, Moradi, G, Moradzadeh, R, Moraga, P, Morawska, L, Moreno Velásquez, I, Morze, J, Mubarik, S, Muruet, W, Musa, KI, Nagarajan, AJ, Nalini, M, Nangia, V, Naqvi, AA, Narasimha Swamy, S, Nascimento, BR, Nayak, VC, Nazari, J, Nazarzadeh, M, Negoi, RI, Neupane Kandel, S, Nguyen, HLT, Nixon, MR, Norrving, B, Noubiap, JJ, Nouthe, BE, Nowak, C, Odukoya, OO, Ogbo, FA, Olagunju, AT, Orru, H, Ortiz, A, Ostroff, SM, Padubidri, JR, Palladino, R, Pana, A, Panda-Jonas, S, Parekh, U, Park, E-C, Parvizi, M, Pashazadeh Kan, F, Patel, UK, Pathak, M, Paudel, R, Pepito, VCF, Perianayagam, A, Perico, N, Pham, HQ, Pilgrim, T, Piradov, MA, Pishgar, F, Podder, V, Polibin, RV, Pourshams, A, Pribadi, DRA, Rabiee, N, Rabiee, M, Radfar, A, Rafiei, A, Rahim, F, Rahimi-Movaghar, V, Ur Rahman, MH, Rahman, Muhammad, Rahmani, AM, Rakovac, I, Ram, P, Ramalingam, S, Rana, J, Ranasinghe, P, Rao, SJ, Rathi, P, Rawal, L, Rawasia, WF, Rawassizadeh, R, Remuzzi, G, Renzaho, AMN, Rezapour, A, Riahi, SM, Roberts-Thomson, RL, Roever, L, Rohloff, P, Romoli, M, Roshandel, G, Rwegerera, GM, Saadatagah, S, Saber-Ayad, MM, Sabour, S, Sacco, S, Sadeghi, M, Saeedi Moghaddam, S, Safari, S, Sahebkar, A, Salehi, S, Salimzadeh, H, Samaei, M, Samy, AM, Santos, IS, Santric-Milicevic, MM, Sarrafzadegan, N, Sarveazad, A, Sathish, T, Sawhney, M, Saylan, M, Schmidt, MI, Schutte, AE, Senthilkumaran, S, Sepanlou, SG, Sha, F, Shahabi, S, Shahid, I, Shaikh, MA, Shamali, M, Shamsizadeh, M, Shawon, MSR, Sheikh, A, Shigematsu, M, Shin, M-J, Shin, JI, Shiri, R, Shiue, I, Shuval, K, Siabani, S, Siddiqi, TJ, Silva, DAS, Singh, JA, Mtech, AS, Skryabin, VY, Skryabina, AA, Soheili, A, Spurlock, EE, Stockfelt, L, Stortecky, S, Stranges, S, Suliankatchi Abdulkader, R, Tadbiri, H, Tadesse, EG, Tadesse, DB, Tajdini, M, Tariqujjaman, M, Teklehaimanot, BF, Temsah, M-H, Tesema, AK, Thakur, B, Thankappan, KR, Thapar, R, Thrift, AG, Timalsina, B, Tonelli, M, Touvier, M, Tovani-Palone, MR, Tripathi, A, Tripathy, JP, Truelsen, TC, Tsegay, GM, Tsegaye, GW, Tsilimparis, N, Tusa, BS, Tyrovolas, S, Umapathi, KK, Unim, B, Unnikrishnan, B, Usman, MS, Vaduganathan, M, Valdez, PR, Vasankari, TJ, Velazquez, DZ, Venketasubramanian, N, Vu, GT, Vujcic, IS, Waheed, Y, Wang, Y, Wang, F, Wei, J, Weintraub, RG, Weldemariam, AH, Westerman, R, Winkler, AS, Wiysonge, CS, Wolfe, CDA, Wubishet, BL, Xu, G, Yadollahpour, A, Yamagishi, K, Yan, LL, Yandrapalli, S, Yano, Y, Yatsuya, H, Yeheyis, TY, Yeshaw, Y, Yilgwan, CS, Yonemoto, N, Yu, C, Yusefzadeh, H, Zachariah, G, Zaman, SB, Zaman, MS, Zamanian, M, Zand, R, Zandifar, A, Zarghi, A, Zastrozhin, MS, Zastrozhina, A, Zhang, Z-J, Zhang, Y, Zhang, W, Zhong, C, Zou, Z, Zuniga, YMH, Murray, CJL and Fuster, V 2020, Global Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases and Risk Factors, 1990–2019, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 76, no. 25, pp. 2982-3021, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2020.11.010.

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Title Global Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases and Risk Factors, 1990–2019
Author(s) Roth, GA
Mensah, GA
Johnson, CO
Addolorato, G
Ammirati, E
Baddour, LM
Barengo, NC
Beaton, AZ
Benjamin, EJ
Benziger, CP
Bonny, A
Brauer, M
Brodmann, M
Cahill, TJ
Carapetis, J
Catapano, AL
Chugh, SS
Cooper, LT
Coresh, J
Criqui, M
DeCleene, N
Eagle, KA
Emmons-Bell, S
Feigin, VL
Fernández-Solà, J
Fowkes, G
Gakidou, E
Grundy, SM
He, FJ
Howard, G
Hu, F
Inker, L
Karthikeyan, G
Kassebaum, N
Koroshetz, W
Lavie, C
Lloyd-Jones, D
Lu, HS
Mirijello, A
Temesgen, AM
Mokdad, A
Moran, AE
Muntner, P
Narula, J
Neal, B
Ntsekhe, M
Moraes de Oliveira, G
Otto, C
Owolabi, M
Pratt, M
Rajagopalan, S
Reitsma, M
Ribeiro, ALP
Rigotti, N
Rodgers, A
Sable, C
Shakil, S
Sliwa-Hahnle, K
Stark, B
Sundström, J
Timpel, P
Tleyjeh, IM
Valgimigli, M
Vos, T
Whelton, PK
Yacoub, M
Zuhlke, L
Murray, C
Fuster, V
Roth, GA
Mensah, GA
Johnson, CO
Addolorato, G
Ammirati, E
Baddour, LM
Barengo, NC
Beaton, A
Benjamin, EJ
Benziger, CP
Bonny, A
Brauer, M
Brodmann, M
Cahill, TJ
Carapetis, JR
Catapano, AL
Chugh, S
Cooper, LT
Coresh, J
Criqui, MH
DeCleene, NK
Eagle, KA
Emmons-Bell, S
Feigin, VL
Fernández-Sola, J
Fowkes, FGR
Gakidou, E
Grundy, SM
He, FJ
Howard, G
Hu, F
Inker, L
Karthikeyan, G
Kassebaum, NJ
Koroshetz, WJ
Lavie, C
Lloyd-Jones, D
Lu, HS
Mirijello, A
Misganaw, AT
Mokdad, AH
Moran, AE
Muntner, P
Narula, J
Neal, B
Ntsekhe, M
Oliveira, GMM
Otto, CM
Owolabi, MO
Pratt, M
Rajagopalan, S
Reitsma, MB
Ribeiro, ALP
Rigotti, NA
Rodgers, A
Sable, CA
Shakil, SS
Sliwa, K
Stark, BA
Sundström, J
Timpel, P
Tleyjeh, II
Valgimigli, M
Vos, T
Whelton, PK
Yacoub, M
Zuhlke, LJ
Abbasi-Kangevari, M
Abdi, A
Abedi, A
Aboyans, V
Abrha, WA
Abu-Gharbieh, E
Abushouk, AI
Acharya, D
Adair, T
Adebayo, OM
Ademi, Z
Advani, SM
Afshari, K
Afshin, A
Agarwal, G
Agasthi, P
Ahmad, S
Ahmadi, S
Ahmed, MB
Aji, B
Akalu, Y
Akande-Sholabi, W
Aklilu, A
Akunna, CJ
Alahdab, F
Al-Eyadhy, A
Alhabib, KF
Alif, SM
Alipour, V
Aljunid, SM
Alla, F
Almasi-Hashiani, A
Almustanyir, S
Al-Raddadi, RM
Amegah, AK
Amini, S
Aminorroaya, A
Amu, H
Amugsi, DA
Ancuceanu, R
Anderlini, D
Andrei, T
Andrei, CL
Ansari-Moghaddam, A
Anteneh, ZA
Antonazzo, IC
Antony, B
Anwer, R
Appiah, LT
Arabloo, J
Ärnlöv, J
Artanti, KD
Ataro, Z
Ausloos, M
Avila-Burgos, L
Awan, AT
Awoke, MA
Ayele, HT
Ayza, MA
Azari, S
B, DB
Baheiraei, N
Baig, AA
Bakhtiari, A
Banach, M
Banik, PC
Baptista, EA
Barboza, MA
Barua, L
Basu, S
Bedi, N
Béjot, Y
Bennett, DA
Bensenor, IM
Berman, AE
Bezabih, YM
Bhagavathula, AS
Bhaskar, S
Bhattacharyya, K
Bijani, A
Bikbov, B
Birhanu, MM
Boloor, A
Brant, LC
Brenner, H
Briko, NI
Butt, ZA
Caetano dos Santos, FL
Cahill, LE
Cahuana-Hurtado, L
Cámera, LA
Campos-Nonato, IR
Cantu-Brito, C
Car, J
Carrero, JJ
Carvalho, F
Castañeda-Orjuela, CA
Catalá-López, F
Cerin, E
Charan, J
Chattu, VK
Chen, S
Chin, KL
Choi, J-YJ
Chu, D-T
Chung, S-C
Cirillo, M
Coffey, S
Conti, S
Costa, VM
Cundiff, DK
Dadras, O
Dagnew, B
Dai, X
Damasceno, AAM
Dandona, L
Dandona, R
Davletov, K
De la Cruz-Góngora, V
De la Hoz, FP
De Neve, J-W
Denova-Gutiérrez, E
Derbew Molla, M
Derseh, BT
Desai, R
Deuschl, G
Dharmaratne, SD
Dhimal, M
Dhungana, RR
Dianatinasab, M
Diaz, D
Djalalinia, S
Dokova, K
Douiri, A
Duncan, BB
Duraes, AR
Eagan, AW
Ebtehaj, S
Eftekhari, A
Eftekharzadeh, S
Ekholuenetale, M
El Nahas, N
Elgendy, IY
Elhadi, M
El-Jaafary, SI
Esteghamati, S
Etisso, AE
Eyawo, O
Fadhil, I
Faraon, EJA
Faris, PS
Farwati, M
Farzadfar, F
Fernandes, E
Fernandez Prendes, C
Ferrara, P
Filip, I
Fischer, F
Flood, D
Fukumoto, T
Gad, MM
Gaidhane, S
Ganji, M
Garg, J
Gebre, AK
Gebregiorgis, BG
Gebregzabiher, KZ
Gebremeskel, GG
Getacher, L
Obsa, AG
Ghajar, A
Ghashghaee, A
Ghith, N
Giampaoli, S
Gilani, SA
Gill, PS
Gillum, RF
Glushkova, EV
Gnedovskaya, EV
Golechha, M
Gonfa, KB
Goudarzian, AH
Goulart, AC
Guadamuz, JS
Guha, A
Guo, Y
Gupta, R
Hachinski, V
Hafezi-Nejad, N
Haile, TG
Hamadeh, RR
Hamidi, S
Hankey, GJ
Hargono, A
Hartono, RK
Hashemian, M
Hashi, A
Hassan, S
Hassen, HY
Havmoeller, RJ
Hay, SI
Hayat, K
Heidari, G
Herteliu, C
Holla, R
Hosseini, M
Hosseinzadeh, M
Hostiuc, M
Hostiuc, S
Househ, M
Huang, J
Humayun, A
Iavicoli, I
Ibeneme, CU
Ibitoye, SE
Ilesanmi, OS
Ilic, IM
Ilic, MD
Iqbal, U
Irvani, SSN
Shariful Islam, SheikhORCID iD for Shariful Islam, Sheikh orcid.org/0000-0001-7926-9368
Islam, RM
Iso, H
Iwagami, M
Jain, V
Javaheri, T
Jayapal, SK
Jayaram, S
Jayawardena, R
Jeemon, P
Jha, RP
Jonas, JB
Jonnagaddala, J
Joukar, F
Jozwiak, JJ
Jürisson, M
Kabir, A
Kahlon, T
Kalani, R
Kalhor, R
Kamath, A
Kamel, I
Kandel, H
Kandel, A
Karch, A
Kasa, AS
Katoto, PDMC
Kayode, GA
Khader, YS
Khammarnia, M
Khan, MS
Khan, MN
Khan, M
Khan, EA
Khatab, K
Kibria, GMA
Kim, YJ
Kim, GR
Kimokoti, RW
Kisa, S
Kisa, A
Kivimäki, M
Kolte, D
Koolivand, A
Korshunov, VA
Koulmane Laxminarayana, SL
Koyanagi, A
Krishan, K
Krishnamoorthy, V
Kuate Defo, B
Kucuk Bicer, B
Kulkarni, V
Kumar, GA
Kumar, N
Kurmi, OP
Kusuma, D
Kwan, GF
La Vecchia, C
Lacey, B
Lallukka, T
Lan, Q
Lasrado, S
Lassi, ZS
Lauriola, P
Lawrence, WR
Laxmaiah, A
LeGrand, KE
Li, M-C
Li, B
Li, S
Lim, SS
Lim, L-L
Lin, H
Lin, Z
Lin, R-T
Liu, X
Lopez, AD
Lorkowski, S
Lotufo, PA
Lugo, A
M, NK
Madotto, F
Mahmoudi, M
Majeed, A
Malekzadeh, R
Malik, AA
Mamun, AA
Manafi, N
Mansournia, MA
Mantovani, LG
Martini, S
Mathur, MR
Mazzaglia, G
Mehata, S
Mehndiratta, MM
Meier, T
Menezes, RG
Meretoja, A
Mestrovic, T
Miazgowski, B
Miazgowski, T
Michalek, IM
Miller, TR
Mirrakhimov, EM
Mirzaei, H
Moazen, B
Moghadaszadeh, M
Mohammad, Y
Mohammad, DK
Mohammed, S
Mohammed, MA
Mokhayeri, Y
Molokhia, M
Montasir, AA
Moradi, G
Moradzadeh, R
Moraga, P
Morawska, L
Moreno Velásquez, I
Morze, J
Mubarik, S
Muruet, W
Musa, KI
Nagarajan, AJ
Nalini, M
Nangia, V
Naqvi, AA
Narasimha Swamy, S
Nascimento, BR
Nayak, VC
Nazari, J
Nazarzadeh, M
Negoi, RI
Neupane Kandel, S
Nguyen, HLT
Nixon, MR
Norrving, B
Noubiap, JJ
Nouthe, BE
Nowak, C
Odukoya, OO
Ogbo, FA
Olagunju, AT
Orru, H
Ortiz, A
Ostroff, SM
Padubidri, JR
Palladino, R
Pana, A
Panda-Jonas, S
Parekh, U
Park, E-C
Parvizi, M
Pashazadeh Kan, F
Patel, UK
Pathak, M
Paudel, R
Pepito, VCF
Perianayagam, A
Perico, N
Pham, HQ
Pilgrim, T
Piradov, MA
Pishgar, F
Podder, V
Polibin, RV
Pourshams, A
Pribadi, DRA
Rabiee, N
Rabiee, M
Radfar, A
Rafiei, A
Rahim, F
Rahimi-Movaghar, V
Ur Rahman, MH
Rahman, MuhammadORCID iD for Rahman, Muhammad orcid.org/0000-0003-1665-7966
Rahmani, AM
Rakovac, I
Ram, P
Ramalingam, S
Rana, J
Ranasinghe, P
Rao, SJ
Rathi, P
Rawal, L
Rawasia, WF
Rawassizadeh, R
Remuzzi, G
Renzaho, AMN
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Journal name Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Volume number 76
Issue number 25
Start page 2982
End page 3021
Total pages 40
Publisher Elsevier
Place of publication Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Publication date 2020-12-22
ISSN 0735-1097
Keyword(s) cardiovascular diseases
global health
health policy
population health
Summary Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), principally ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke, are the leading cause of global mortality and a major contributor to disability. This paper reviews the magnitude of total CVD burden, including 13 underlying causes of cardiovascular death and 9 related risk factors, using estimates from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019. GBD, an ongoing multinational collaboration to provide comparable and consistent estimates of population health over time, used all available population-level data sources on incidence, prevalence, case fatality, mortality, and health risks to produce estimates for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019.Prevalent cases of total CVD nearly doubled from 271 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 257 to 285 million) in 1990 to 523 million (95% UI: 497 to 550 million) in 2019, and the number of CVD deaths steadily increased from 12.1 million (95% UI:11.4 to 12.6 million) in 1990, reaching 18.6 million (95% UI: 17.1 to 19.7 million) in 2019. The global trends for disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years of life lost also increased significantly, and years lived with disability doubled from 17.7 million (95% UI: 12.9 to 22.5 million) to 34.4 million (95% UI:24.9 to 43.6 million) over that period. The total number of DALYs due to IHD has risen steadily since 1990, reaching 182 million (95% UI: 170 to 194 million) DALYs, 9.14 million (95% UI: 8.40 to 9.74 million) deaths in the year 2019, and 197 million (95% UI: 178 to 220 million) prevalent cases of IHD in 2019. The total number of DALYs due to stroke has risen steadily since 1990, reaching 143 million (95% UI: 133 to 153 million) DALYs, 6.55 million (95% UI: 6.00 to 7.02 million) deaths in the year 2019, and 101 million (95% UI: 93.2 to 111 million) prevalent cases of stroke in 2019.Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of disease burden in the world. CVD burden continues its decades-long rise for almost all countries outside high-income countries, and alarmingly, the age-standardized rate of CVD has begun to rise in some locations where it was previously declining in high-income countries. There is an urgent need to focus on implementing existing cost-effective policies and interventions if the world is to meet the targets for Sustainable Development Goal 3 and achieve a 30% reduction in premature mortality due to noncommunicable diseases.
Language eng
DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2020.11.010
Indigenous content off
Field of Research 1102 Cardiorespiratory Medicine and Haematology
1117 Public Health and Health Services
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2020, The Authors
Free to Read? Yes
Use Rights Creative Commons Attribution licence
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30146218

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