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The Development of Empirically Derived Australian Low-Risk Gambling Limits

Dowling, Nicole, Youssef, George, Greenwood, Christopher, Merkouris, Stephanie, Suomi, A and Room, R 2021, The Development of Empirically Derived Australian Low-Risk Gambling Limits, Journal of Clinical Medicine, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 167-167, doi: 10.3390/jcm10020167.

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Title The Development of Empirically Derived Australian Low-Risk Gambling Limits
Author(s) Dowling, NicoleORCID iD for Dowling, Nicole orcid.org/0000-0001-8592-2407
Youssef, GeorgeORCID iD for Youssef, George orcid.org/0000-0002-6178-4895
Greenwood, Christopher
Merkouris, StephanieORCID iD for Merkouris, Stephanie orcid.org/0000-0001-9037-6121
Suomi, A
Room, R
Journal name Journal of Clinical Medicine
Volume number 10
Issue number 2
Start page 167
End page 167
Total pages 18
Publisher MDPI AG
Place of publication Basel, Switzerland
Publication date 2021-01-06
ISSN 2077-0383
Keyword(s) gambling
low-risk
limits
responsible gambling
guidelines
relative risk
absolute risk
gambling harm
harm
Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Medicine, General & Internal
General & Internal Medicine
Summary This study derived a set of Australian low-risk gambling limits and explored the relative and absolute risk associated with exceeding these limits. Secondary analysis of population-representative Tasmanian and Australian Capital Territory (ACT) cross-sectional (11,597 respondents) and longitudinal studies (2027 respondents) was conducted. Balancing sensitivity and specificity, the limits were: gambling frequency of 20–30 times per year; gambling expenditure of AUD $380–$615 per year (USD $240–$388 per year); gambling expenditure comprising 0.83–1.68% of gross personal income; and two types of gambling activities per year. All limits, except number of activities, predicted subsequent harm, with limits related to gambling expenditure consistently the best-performing. Exceeding the limits generally conferred a higher degree of relative and absolute risk, with gamblers exceeding the limits being 3–20 times more likely to experience harm than those who do not, and having a 5–17% risk of experiencing harm. Only 7–12% of gamblers exceeding the limits actually experienced harm. Gambling consumption lower than the limits also conferred a considerable amount of harm. Using a relative risk method, this study derived similar limits from disparate Australian states and territories. These limits can serve as working guidelines for the consideration of researchers, clinicians, and policy makers, but need to be subject to further rigorous empirical investigation.
Language eng
DOI 10.3390/jcm10020167
Indigenous content off
Field of Research 1103 Clinical Sciences
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Free to Read? Yes
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30147053

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: Faculty of Health
School of Psychology
Open Access Collection
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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.