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Broadening the ecology of fear: non-lethal effects arise from diverse responses to predation and parasitism

Daversa, DR, Hechinger, RF, Madin, E, Fenton, A, Dell, AI, Ritchie, Euan G, Rohr, J, Rudolf, VHW and Lafferty, KD 2021, Broadening the ecology of fear: non-lethal effects arise from diverse responses to predation and parasitism, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: biological sciences, vol. 288, no. 1945, pp. 1-9, doi: 10.1098/rspb.2020.2966.

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Title Broadening the ecology of fear: non-lethal effects arise from diverse responses to predation and parasitism
Author(s) Daversa, DR
Hechinger, RF
Madin, E
Fenton, A
Dell, AI
Ritchie, Euan GORCID iD for Ritchie, Euan G orcid.org/0000-0003-4410-8868
Rohr, J
Rudolf, VHW
Lafferty, KD
Journal name Proceedings of the Royal Society B: biological sciences
Volume number 288
Issue number 1945
Article ID 20202966
Start page 1
End page 9
Total pages 9
Publisher Royal Society Publishing
Place of publication London, Eng.
Publication date 2021-02-24
ISSN 0962-8452
1471-2954
Keyword(s) Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Biology
Ecology
Evolutionary Biology
Environmental Sciences & Ecology
natural enemies
sublethal effects
trait-mediated effects
community ecology
food webs
risk effects
Summary Research on the ‘ecology of fear’ posits that defensive prey responses to avoid predation can cause non-lethal effects across ecological scales. Parasites also elicit defensive responses in hosts with associated non-lethal effects, which raises the longstanding, yet unresolved question of how non-lethal effects of parasites compare with those of predators. We developed a framework for systematically answering this question for all types of predator–prey and host–parasite systems. Our framework reveals likely differences in non-lethal effects not only between predators and parasites, but also between different types of predators and parasites. Trait responses should be strongest towards predators, parasitoids and parasitic castrators, but more numerous and perhaps more frequent for parasites than for predators. In a case study of larval amphibians, whose trait responses to both predators and parasites have been relatively well studied, existing data indicate that individuals generally respond more strongly and proactively to short-term predation risks than to parasitism. Apart from studies using amphibians, there have been few direct comparisons of responses to predation and parasitism, and none have incorporated responses to micropredators, parasitoids or parasitic castrators, or examined their long-term consequences. Addressing these and other data gaps highlighted by our framework can advance the field towards understanding how non-lethal effects impact prey/host population dynamics and shape food webs that contain multiple predator and parasite species.
Language eng
DOI 10.1098/rspb.2020.2966
Indigenous content off
Field of Research 06 Biological Sciences
07 Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences
11 Medical and Health Sciences
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Free to Read? Yes
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30148278

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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.