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Macronutrient sensing in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract: Alimentary tastes

Keast, Russell, Costanzo, Andrew and Hartley, Isabella 2021, Macronutrient sensing in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract: Alimentary tastes, Nutrients, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 1-21, doi: 10.3390/nu13020667.

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Title Macronutrient sensing in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract: Alimentary tastes
Author(s) Keast, RussellORCID iD for Keast, Russell orcid.org/0000-0003-2147-7687
Costanzo, Andrew
Hartley, Isabella
Journal name Nutrients
Volume number 13
Issue number 2
Start page 1
End page 21
Total pages 21
Publisher MDPI
Place of publication Basel, Switzerland
Publication date 2021
ISSN 2072-6643
Keyword(s) taste
obesity
fat
protein
carbohydrate
Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Nutrition & Dietetics
Summary There are numerous and diverse factors enabling the overconsumption of foods, with the sense of taste being one of these factors. There are four well established basic tastes: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter; all with perceptual independence, salience, and hedonic responses to encourage or discourage consumption. More recently, additional tastes have been added to the basic taste list including umami and fat, but they lack the perceptual independence and salience of the basics. There is also emerging evidence of taste responses to kokumi and carbohydrate. One interesting aspect is the link with the new and emerging tastes to macronutrients, with each macronutrient having two distinct perceptual qualities that, perhaps in combination, provide a holistic perception for each macronutrient: fat has fat taste and mouthfeel; protein has umami and kokumi; carbohydrate has sweet and carbohydrate tastes. These new tastes can be sensed in the oral cavity, but they have more influence post- than pre-ingestion. Umami, fat, kokumi, and carbohydrate tastes have been suggested as an independent category named alimentary. This narrative review will present and discuss evidence for macronutrient sensing throughout the alimentary canal and evidence of how each of the alimentary tastes may influence the consumption of foods.
Language eng
DOI 10.3390/nu13020667
Indigenous content off
Field of Research 0908 Food Sciences
1111 Nutrition and Dietetics
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Free to Read? Yes
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30148604

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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.