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The associations between maternal and child diet quality and child ADHD – findings from a large Norwegian pregnancy cohort study

Borge, Tiril Cecilie, Biele, Guido, Papadopoulou, Eleni, Andersen, Lene Frost, Jacka, Felice, Eggesbø, Merete, Caspersen, Ida Henriette, Aase, Heidi, Meltzer, Helle Margrete and Brantsæter, Anne Lise 2021, The associations between maternal and child diet quality and child ADHD – findings from a large Norwegian pregnancy cohort study, BMC psychiatry, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 1-14, doi: 10.1186/s12888-021-03130-4.

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Title The associations between maternal and child diet quality and child ADHD – findings from a large Norwegian pregnancy cohort study
Author(s) Borge, Tiril Cecilie
Biele, Guido
Papadopoulou, Eleni
Andersen, Lene Frost
Jacka, FeliceORCID iD for Jacka, Felice orcid.org/0000-0002-9825-0328
Eggesbø, Merete
Caspersen, Ida Henriette
Aase, Heidi
Meltzer, Helle Margrete
Brantsæter, Anne Lise
Journal name BMC psychiatry
Volume number 21
Issue number 1
Article ID 139
Start page 1
End page 14
Total pages 14
Publisher BioMed Central
Place of publication London, Eng.
Publication date 2021-12-01
ISSN 1471-244X
1471-244X
Keyword(s) MoBa
Maternal diet quality
Child diet quality
Child ADHD
Bayesian modelling
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Psychiatry
Science & Technology
Summary Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder. Effective long-term treatment options are limited, which warrants increased focus on potential modifiable risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between maternal diet quality during pregnancy and child diet quality and child ADHD symptoms and ADHD diagnosis. Methods This study is based on the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). We assessed maternal diet quality with the Prenatal Diet Quality Index (PDQI) and Ultra-Processed Food Index (UPFI) around mid-gestation, and child diet quality using the Diet Quality Index (CDQI) at 3 years. ADHD symptoms were assessed at child age 8 years using the Parent Rating Scale for Disruptive Behaviour Disorders. ADHD diagnoses were retrieved from the Norwegian Patient Registry. Results In total, 77,768 mother-child pairs were eligible for studying ADHD diagnoses and 37,787 for ADHD symptoms. Means (SD) for the PDQI, UPFI and CDQI were 83.1 (9.3), 31.8 (9.7) and 60.3 (10.6), respectively. Mean (SD) ADHD symptom score was 8.4 (7.1) and ADHD diagnosis prevalence was 2.9% (male to female ratio 2.6:1). For one SD increase in maternal diet index scores, we saw a change in mean (percent) ADHD symptom score of − 0.28 (− 3.3%) (CI: − 0.41, − 0.14 (− 4.8, − 1.6%)) for PDQI scores and 0.25 (+ 3.0%) (CI: 0.13, 0.38 (1.5, 4.5%)) for UPFI scores. A one SD increase in PDQI score was associated with a relative risk of ADHD diagnosis of 0.87 (CI: 0.79, 0.97). We found no reliable associations with either outcomes for the CDQI, and no reliable change in risk of ADHD diagnosis for the UPFI. Conclusions We provide evidence that overall maternal diet quality during pregnancy is associated with a small decrease in ADHD symptom score at 8 years and lower risk for ADHD diagnosis, with more robust findings for the latter outcome. Consumption of ultra-processed foods was only associated with increased ADHD symptom score of similar magnitude as for overall maternal diet quality, and we found no associations between child diet quality and either outcome. No causal inferences should be made based on these results, due to potential unmeasured confounding.
Language eng
DOI 10.1186/s12888-021-03130-4
Indigenous content off
Field of Research 1103 Clinical Sciences
1117 Public Health and Health Services
1701 Psychology
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Free to Read? Yes
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30149310

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: Faculty of Health
School of Medicine
Open Access Collection
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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.